CR, February 7, 2001
Review Sheet for Final Exam

Vertiefungskurs Nucleic Acids Chemistry
Wintersemester 2000

Homepage of this course: http://134.34.110.44/NAC_2000/Index.html

Some general guidelines designed to help you prepare for the final
-  It is not important that you remember the names of investigators, dates or journals, or memorize the exact structures of all intermediates or rare compounds discussed.
-  What you should know is principles of nucleic acids chemistry and the syntheses we discussed.
-  For example, you should know that purines depurinate under acidic conditions, and that the synthesis of nucleosides from glycosyl donors and a silylated nucleobase is catalyzed by Lewis acids.
-  Please go over your notes.  The material presented on the board is what is relevant (and chemical and biochemical questions that can be deduced readily from it).
-  You need 50% of the points to pass.
The following list highlights portions of the material discussed that are likely to be covered in the final:

The Structure of DNA
Ribose, nucleobase, nucleosides, nucleotides, pKas

DNA and RNA Structure
Watson-Crick base pairing, Hoogsteen base pairing, A- and B-form duplexes, Triple helices,

Chemical Synthesis of Nucleotides
Glycosylation Methods: Vorbrüggen glycosylation;  Anchimeric effect and stereoselectivity

Chemical Synthesis of DNA and RNA
Coupling Methods: Phosphotriester method, Phosphoramidite method, Solid-Phase Synthesis of DNA

Biosynthesis of Nucleotides
Biosynthesis of Inosine-5'-phosphate, Conversion of IMP to AMP and GMP, Synthesis of uridine monophosphate

Replication, Transcription and Translation
Transcription, Translation

Chemical Reactions of DNA and RNA
Hydrolysis, Alkylation

Non-Covalent Binding of Small Molecules to DNA and RNA
Intercalators, Groove binders

DNA-Binding Proteins
Chromatin structure, Zinc fingers

DNA-Chips
Light-Directed Synthesis of Oligonucleotide Arrays, Synthesis of Oligonucleotide Arrays via Spotting

Backbone-Modified Oligonucleotides
Phosphoramidates as Phosphodiester-Surrogates, Synthesis of PNAs

Antisense Inhibition of Gene Expression
Gene Expression and the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology, First Generation Antisense Agents, Antigene-Oligonucleotide Inhibitors

Gene Therapy and Chimeraplasty
Categories of gene therapy, Viral and non-viral carriers, Targeted gene correction or chimeraplasty

RNA Interference
Fate of dsRNA injected into organisms, need for nuclease(s)